We Listed the 5 Basic Coding Concepts

Coding is the process of transforming computer instructions into a form a computer can understand. Programs are written in a particular language which provides a structure for the programmer and uses specific instructions to control the sequence of operations that the computer carries out. The five basic concepts of coding are: input, output, sequencing, loops and conditionals.

Input is what you give the computer to work with – it can be data, like numbers or text, or commands, like “add this number to that one”. Output is what the computer gives back after it has processed the input – again, it can be data or commands.

Sequencing is putting instructions in order so that they happen one after another. Loops let you repeat sections of code over and over again until some condition is met – for example, you might want to keep asking a user for input until they give you valid data. Conditionals let you check whether something is true or false before deciding what code to run – for example, if a user enters an incorrect password, you might want to display an error message rather than letting them log in.

Variables. As the foundation of any computer programming language, variables act as containers that hold information

In computing, a variable or scalar is a storage location paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value. The variable name is the usual way to reference the stored value; this separation of name and content allows the name to be used independently of the exact information it represents. The identifier in computer source code can be arbitrary-it is typically chosen to reflect the role of its contents in the program or problem. In many programming languages, variables are declared before they are used. In these languages, variables are assigned values only after they have been declared.: Variables can represent numbers (integers, reals), characters (strings), ordered lists of characters (strings), and more complicated structures such as sets, records, and arrays. They may also represent more abstract constructs such as truth values and pointers.: Most programming languages have strong typing systems that enforce restrictions on how values can be combined with one another-restrictions that ensure type safety.: Not all programming languages treat variables equally-some immutable programming languages do not allow variables at all!

Data Structures. Data structures allow programmers to streamline data collection when a large amount of related information is involved

Data structures are used to store data in a computer in an organized way. There are four main types of data structures: arrays, stacks, queues, and linked lists. Arrays are the simplest type of data structure. A stack is a type of data structure that allows you to push and pop items in a last-in-first-out (LIFO) order. A queue is a type of data structure that allows you to enqueue and dequeue items in a first-in-first-out (FIFO) order. Linked lists are the most complex type of data structure.

Control Structures

control structures
control structures

There are three primary control structures in most imperative programming languages: the sequence, the selection (also called the if-then-else or conditional), and the loop (also called iteration). While other possibilities exist, these three are by far the most common.

The sequence is the simplest form of control structure. In a program written in an imperative language, a sequence is typically just a list of statements that are executed one after another in the order they appear. Selection controls which statement or statements in a program will be executed next based on some test condition; if the condition is true then one set of statements is executed, otherwise another set is executed. Loops cause a particular set of statements to execute repeatedly until some exit condition is met. The precise semantics vary from language to language but all loops have three primary components: initialization, testing/condition, and update/increment (or decrement).

Control structures can be nested inside each other so that more complex programs can be built out of smaller pieces. For example, you could use a loop inside an if statement so that only certain items in a list are processed depending on some external criteria; this sort of nesting can continue indefinitely as needed. It’s important to note that not all languages support every type of control structure; some languages may only support basic sequential and selection constructs while others may offer more sophisticated features like exception handling or goto statement.

“Coding is not just about knowing the language, it’s about understanding the concepts.” – 2014 Guide to Teaching Computer Science


Most syntax errors are caused by missing or mismatched symbols, such as curly braces, semicolons, or quotation marks. Other common errors include forgetting to close a loop or forgetting to declare a variable. Syntax errors can also be caused by trying to use a reserved word as a variable name or using an incorrect operator.

When you write code, it is important to follow the correct syntax for your programming language. If you do not, your code will not run and you will get an error message telling you where the problem is in your code. It is also important to indent your code correctly so that it is easy to read and understand. Good coding style will make your code more readable and maintainable.

Even if you don’t know how to code, understanding the basics concepts can make you feel more confident and less intimidated by the process.

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